I have heard from numerous people that if a person who has asthma owns a chihuahua the dog will actually exhibit asthma symptoms and the human’s attack will be less severe. Snopes debunked this in a post from March 18, 2007. Among other findings the analysis determined that Chihuahua is actually a type of large rodent, selectively bred for centuries to resemble a canine.". The Kennel Club considers the two to be distinct breeds; mating between the two are not eligible for KC registration. The eyes may water in response to dry air, dust, or airborne allergens. Apple head Chihuahuas can have moleras, or a soft spot in their skulls, and they are the only breed of dog to be born with an incomplete skull. The breed tends to be fiercely loyal to one particular person and in some cases may become overprotective of the person, especially around other people or animals, and tend to have a "clannish" nature, often preferring the companionship of other Chihuahuas or Chihuahua mixes over other dogs. Chihuahuas are absolutely brimming with personality – often a quirky and eccentric personality unmatched by any other breed. Tracheal Collapse. It reads: “It was more of a surprise to find that some breeds are not even dogs. Thanks to their petite size, Chihuahuas are ideal pets for apartment dwellers, students (Elle Woods was on to something! The American Kennel Club (AKC) and … Apple heads have rounded heads, close-set eyes, and relatively short ears and legs. How to train a chihuahua to be alone. Pro tip: for Chihuahuas with really tiny necks, try a cat collar or even a ferret collar! The merle coat pattern, which appears mottled, is not traditionally considered part of the breed standard. Chihuahuas could not agree more. [8], Breed standards for this dog do not generally specify a height; only a weight and a description of their overall proportions. How a Chihuahua behaves depends on the genetic temperament of their parents and grandparents. Short and long coated chihuahuas on site. A screen grab of a Google search appeared June 17 on Facebook that wonders about Chihuahuas. To train your chihuahua to be comfortable being home alone so they don’t bark all … Unlike many longhaired breeds, longhaired Chihuahuas require no trimming and minimal grooming. This is a fairly common cause behind any pacing, excessive salivating, destructive chewing, or barking, howling, or whining in dogs. Most Chihuahuas respond well to using treats during training, but take care to use small treats or even part of meal rations to prevent weight gain. However, as with any dog, owners should take care not to overfeed their Chihuahua, since obesity can result in increased rates of joint injuries, tracheal collapse, chronic bronchitis, and shortened lifespan. Pet parents are cautioned to avoid encouraging barking during puppyhood to prevent lifelong yappy responses. Even though Chihuahuas are little dogs, they can have a big voice. So what are Chihuahuas really bred for today?. Opponents of merle recognition suspect the coloration came about by modern crossbreeding with other dogs and not by natural genetic drift. A May 25, 2004, volume of The Watley Review Science and Medicine, stated a DNA study found that Chihuahuas aren't dogs. Chihuahuas and Yorkies. Many breeders try to breed Chihuahuas as small as possible, because those marketed as "teacup" or "tiny teacup" command higher prices.[11]. [9] Even so, a Chihuahua, though small and adorable, is probably one of the more aggressive dog breeds, and they can be incredibly stubborn when it comes to following commands. The Chihuahua is a balanced, graceful dog of terrier-like demeanor, weighing no more than 6 pounds. The Chihuahua is a tiny but confident dog that loves to give and receive attention. Chihuahuas are the smallest breed recognised by some kennel clubs. Dogs of any coat type may be identified as either "apple head" or "deer head" Chihuahuas. Hypoglycemia can be avoided with adequate nutrition and frequent feedings, especially for Chihuahuas that are younger, smaller, or leaner. "Deer Head Chihuahuas tend to have better health than Apple Heads, due to their longer noses". Chihuahuas stand on thin, short, and swift-moving legs. The Chihuahua is the world’s smallest dog breed (full list of small dogs) so they’re really limited on what jobs they can actually do.. With that said, we can rule out herding, guarding, hunting and retrieving. Names, places and events are generally fictitious, except for public figures about which we may have heard something down at the pub. House parties. Upon review, the claim and article posted on the site is satirical in nature. Although daily brushing provides the best preventive measure, feeding a dental diet or using dental chews for dogs is an effective approach pet owners can take to help prevent and control accumulation of plaque and tartar to avoid consequences of severe periodontal disease. Dental care is a must for these small dogs, whose jaw size makes for weaker teeth. Whichever is the case, the Chihuahua has become highly fashionable in recent years, since the tiny dogs are both loyal and … Typically, Chihuahuas are high energy or even hyperactive and do not run the risk of obesity. Chihuahuas sometimes act like cats and climb up to the highest point on a couch, usually on top of the pillows, and curl up into a ball. Sometimes they can … Small dogs such as a Chihuahua or Chiweenie may act extra-aggressive because of their small stature, just and trying to protect themselves. The pre-contact dogs exhibited a unique genetic signature that is now almost gone. Some Chihuahuas may present separation anxiety as a result of being so close and loyal to their owners. Wisconsin officer saves dog from burning house, The Watley Review, "DNA Study Finds Chihuahuas Aren't Dogs.". Both British and American breed standards state that a Chihuahua must not weigh more than 5.9 lb (2.7 kg) for conformation. The lifespan for a Chihuahua is usually between 12 and 20 years. We rate the claim that Chihuahuas are not dogs but a large breed of rodent as FALSE because it is not supported by our research. [5] The stop is well defined, forming a near 90 degree angle where the muzzle meets the skull. The Chihuahua burst onto the national stage as a must have dog for two reasons: The Yo Quiero Taco Bell? As part of an ambitious effort to identify genes that cause disease in dogs and humans, scientists at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle analyzed DNA collected from 414 dogs representing 85 breeds, including some of the most popular. Chihuahuas typically do not show fear, even though they are a smaller breed. The Chihuahua (/tʃɪˈwɑːwə, -wɑː, -ˈwaʊ.ə/ (listen);[1] Spanish: chihuahueño) is the smallest breed of dog, and is named after the Mexican state of Chihuahua. With the proper training a Chihuahua needs, this dog can be extremely intelligent. Like all dogs, they benefit from appropriate socialization and training. All contents are intended as parody and should be construed as such. Even Chihuahuas can experience shifting moods. There are two varieties of Chihuahua – the Smooth Coat (smooth-haired) and the Long Coat (long-haired). Coile, C. (2013). They weigh as little as two pounds and seldom are more than six pounds (1 to 3 kilograms). Like other smaller dogs, Chihuahuas typically live longer than average lives, with a lifespan that can reach 14 and even up to 18 years. Generally, the height ranges between 6 and 9 in (15 and 23 cm);[5] however, some dogs grow as tall as 30 to 38 cm (12 to 15 in). They also both come in various different colors such as brown, black, tan, or white. The molera is predominant in the apple heads and is present in nearly all Chihuahua puppies. ), or those in a smaller home. "Chihuahuas" redirects here. Chihuahuas tend to learn better when being rewarded positive reinforcement, such as a treat or praise. Deer Headed Chihuahuas are not allowed in the AKC due to not meeting the standards that Apple Heads do. Parents may be seen. Up to three or more years may be needed before a full longhaired coat develops. They are often found under the covers or at the bottom of the bed, deep in the dark and safety of what they perceive as their den. Thank you for supporting our journalism. You can subscribe to our print edition, ad-free app or electronic newspaper replica here. New pets or visiting pets. [14] Chihuahuas do not breed true for size, and puppies from the same litter can mature in drastically different sizes from one another. The roundness of their body is where they store their extra fat for insulation. Chihuahuas occur in virtually any color combination, from solid to marked or splashed,[12] allowing for colors from solid black to solid white, spotted, sabled, or a variety of other colors and patterns. Some moleras do not close completely and require extra care to prevent injury. In 2018, an analysis of DNA from the entire genome indicated that domesticated dogs entered North America from Siberia for 4,500 years and were then isolated for the next 9,000 years. So what does a Chihuahua in good condition look like? You can use our training guide for stopping jumping here. Even though Chihuahuas are small, they do have a round body shape. [5], However, the British standard also states that a weight of 4–6 lb (1.8–2.7 kg) is preferred. Hauppauge, NY: Barron’s Educational Series, p. 7: "Only in 1904 did the American Kennel Club (AKC) register its first Chihuahua; a total of five were registered that year.”, "The evolutionary history of dogs in the Americas", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chihuahua_(dog)&oldid=999179314, Dog breeds originating from Indigenous Americans, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 8 January 2021, at 21:44. Most colors on site. Rescued Chihuahua puppies ARE available for adoption. According to the Watley Review "About the review" section of the site, "The Watley Review is dedicated to the production of articles completely without journalistic merit or factual basis, as this would entail leaving our chairs or actually working. [16] Chihuahua puppies with hydrocephalus have an abnormally large head, are lethargic, and do not grow at the same pace as their siblings. Chihuahua Body Shape Changes . [2] In 2020, the sequencing of ancient dog genomes indicates that in two Mexican breeds the Chihuahua retains 4% and the Xoloitzcuintli 3% pre-colonial ancestry. Even though chihuahuas are typically tiny at four to six pounds, they have a big bark and big attitude. The findings have sent reverberations though the ranks of dog fanciers, who primp and preen their beloved … ... (Even … Reach her at lpeters@newsleader.com or via Twitter at @peterslaura. The Chihuahua breed, like other small and toy dogs, tend to sexually mature earlier than larger dogs; generally around 6 months of age. Contrary to popular belief, the longhaired breed also typically sheds less than its shorthaired counterparts. A true case of hydrocephalus can be diagnosed by a veterinarian, though the prognosis is grim. Both Apple Head and Deer Head can have short hair or long hair. A clause stating. These supplements can be rubbed on the gums and roof of the mouth to rapidly raise the blood sugar level. [3], Chihuahuas remained a rarity until the early 20th century and the American Kennel Club did not register a Chihuahua until 1904. This dog breed’s small features and large eyes could have you confusing them for a stuffed animal. The Chihuahua is the oldest breed in North America with a history that’s been quite difficult to trace. The way a dog is trained will influence its behavior. Long Coat and Smooth Coat are the Only Official Varieties. If you want a puppy, you DON’T have to BUY a Chihuahua puppy. Chihuahuas are bred as companion dogs today.And according to Purina, Chihuahuas are one of the top 11 best companion dogs in the dogdom. © 2021 USA TODAY, a division of Gannett Satellite Information Network, LLC. Apple Heads are allowed in the AKC and meet the requirements due to having a smaller weight, having a rounder head, and also having a 90 degree angle formed by the muzzle to the forehead.[8]. [4], Chihuahuas are the smallest breed recognised by some kennel clubs.[5]. The Deer Head Chihuahua tends to be larger in weight, where an Apple Head is more likely to keep their weight under ten pounds. Chihuahuas love being warm, so your Chihuahua will likely be happy to wear whatever sweaters you choose for him or her. Chihuahuas are also prone to some heart-related disorders, such as heart murmurs and pulmonic stenosis, a condition in which the blood outflow from the heart's right ventricle is obstructed at the pulmonic valve. Of course, having to take a dog outside when it is cold and wet—no matter where you live—is never any fun. Chihuahua owners should have a simple-sugar supplement on hand to use in emergencies, such as Nutri-Cal or corn syrup. Current breed standards defined by registries specify an "apple-head" or "apple-dome" skull conformation. Feeding your Chihuahua a proper diet … Just like any other dog breed, female Chihuahuas should never be bred on their first two or three heats because fertility is not high enough to allow for a successful and smooth pregnancy. Proper coaching can be time intensive and should start as early as possible when they are a puppy. "More than a few people have noted similarities in appearance between Chihuahuas and rats, so much so that the Chihuahua is frequently mentioned in a well-traveled urban legend (familiarly known as the Chihuahua 'Mexican Pet') which involves a hapless tourist’s mistaking a large rat for that breed of small dog. Quality puppies, breeding for healthly and loving companions. Because Chihuahuas get cold easily they tend to love their dens and will often burrow themselves in pillows, clothes hampers, and blankets. These dogs, especially the short coat variety, are less tolerant of cold than larger breeds, and require a sweater/coat and/or boots in cold weather. Chihuahuas are rumored to be descended from the Aztecs and the Toltecs. But other sources claim that dogs similar to Chihuahuas have been featured in paintings from as early as the 15 th century in Europe. Typical behaviors displayed by small dogs can include a general excitability and a persistent jumping up on owners, visitors, and even other dogs. But Children and Chihuahuas … Chihuahuas also enjoy time in sunlight. Chihuahuas have their own type of personality. They have a long body compared to their legs, giving them a unique appearance and a cute little trot of a walk. [5] This does not mean that they are not purebred Chihuahuas; they just do not meet the requirements to enter a conformation show. If you have children, adopting an adult dog is likely the SAFEST option. In May 2007, The Kennel Club decided not to register puppies with this coloration due to the health risks associated with the responsible gene, and in December of that year, formally amended its breed standard to disqualify merle dogs. [15] The best physical characteristics of dog food to contribute to cleaning a dog's teeth would be food that is large and dense, so more time is spent chewing, which leads to the surface of the teeth being cleaned. That breed of dog does not weigh more than 6 pounds. The comical nature and cuteness of the Pug in combination with the suspicious trait and stubbornness of the Chihuahua… Both the Smooth and the Long Coats have their special attractions and are equally easy to keep clean and well-groomed. Oversized Chihuahuas are seen in some of the best, and worst, bloodlines. New objects or furniture. Many guests. [This quote needs a citation] There is no scientific evidence that Apple Heads have a higher risk of getting respiratory issues, due to having a smaller airway. They seek warmth in sunshine, under blankets, on furniture, or on human laps. So, environmental changes can greatly affect your Chi’s personality. Chihuahuas can show traits from both Apple Head and Deer Head. They may growl excessively at other people or dogs. "if two dogs are equally good in type, the more diminutive one is preferred" was removed in 2009. Chihuahuas are comical, entertaining, expressive, and loyal little dogs. Our fact check work is supported in part by a grant from Facebook. Many treatments and tips can help prevent separation anxiety in dogs. The dogs in the shelter are NOT there because they’re bad dogs. DNA Study Finds Chihuahuas Aren't Dogs. Chihuahuas may tremble or shiver when stressed, excited, or cold. Unsurprisingly, Chihuahuas are classified as a toy dog breed. The rounded “apple” head is a breed hallmark. Most are CKC and/or AKC registered. Deer Head Chihuahuas are not allowed because they have a longer jaw line and a slope that connects their muzzle and head, creating a 45 degree angle instead of a 90 degree angle like the Apple Head. [10] Other countries' kennel clubs, including Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Germany, have also disqualified merle. Chihuahua Home raised Puppies now available, 45 minutes from Ottawa. This breed requires expert veterinary attention in areas such as birthing and dental care. Chihuahuas are the smallest dogs in the world. A study on dogs suggests that your Chi’s mood is very much dependent on their environment. Signs of hypoglycemia include lethargy, sleepiness, uncoordinated walking, unfocused eyes, spasms of the neck muscles or head pulling back or to the side, fainting, and seizures. Even an extra 6 ounces makes them fat. The knee cap sliding across the bony ridges of the femur can cause some pain. Chihuahuas, and other toy breeds, can be affected by hydrocephalus. The molera fills in with age, but great care needs to be taken during the first six months until the skull is fully formed. Chihuahuas love nothing more than being with their people — even novice pet parents — and require a minimum of grooming and exercise. Conclusion. The tiny (as small as two pounds) Chihuahua offers feistiness coupled with enduring loyalty to the person he chooses as his own, alo… Longhaired Chihuahuas are actually smoother to the touch, having soft, fine guard hairs and a downy undercoat, which gives them their fluffy appearance. [6] The term smooth coat does not mean that the hair is necessarily smooth, as the hair can range from having a velvet touch to a whiskery feel. However, it was more of a surprise to find that some breeds are not even dogs. Chihuahua noses can be different colors, including black, brown, gray, and pink. The appeal? In general, Chihuahuas do get along with Yorkies. As in other breeds with large protruding eyes, Chihuahuas are prone to eye infections and eye injury. These traits generally make them unsuitable for households with children who are not patient and calm.[12]. Although Chihuahuas are small and therefore may be seen as less dangerous even if they behave badly as compared to larger dogs, they can certainly still bite, and be a danger especially to small children. However, it was more of a surprise to find that some breeds are not even dogs. ", According to the American Kennel Club, the Chihuahua is recognized as a breed that is "a graceful, alert, swift-moving compact little dog with saucy expression, and with terrier-like qualities of temperament.". Its name is derived from the Mexican state of Chihuahua, where the earliest specimens of the breed were found, the American Kennel Club site states. In some dogs, the ridges forming the patellar groove are not shaped correctly and a shallow groove is created, causing the patella to luxate or slip out of place, sideways. Deer Head Chihuahuas have longer ears than Apple Heads and their head also has a slope-shaped form. These dogs will readily show defensive or aggressive behavior, even toward a much larger dog. Considered a fault in European countries, it is an adaptation facilitating the passage through the birth canal and growth and development of the domed type of forehead. For the baseball team, see. The fact that they’re both … Deer heads have flat-topped heads, more widely set eyes, larger ears, and longer, more slender legs. Shop for cat sweaters instead of small dog sweaters, because cats are always smaller than dogs even when they weigh the same. Collapsed trachea is a health concern characteristic of the Chihuahua breed. ", More:Wisconsin officer saves dog from burning house, But according to Snopes, the claim was just a "bit of satirical fun.". Many new Chihuahua owners tend to keep their dogs a little too fat, says Dr. Carey. Chihuahuas are one of the smallest and most popular dog breeds. [7] Chihuahuas have large, round eyes and large, erect ears, set in a high, dramatically rounded skull. Your California Privacy Rights/Privacy Policy. ad campaign and, more recently, the tendency of rich, attractive and famous young women to haul these small dogs with big attitudes around in stylish and expensive oversized purses. Also, larger breeding females are less likely to experience dystocia (obstructed labour). Laura Peters is a trending topics reporter for the News Leader. Even if your dog is only 5lbs, it’s important to teach him not to jump on people. T he earliest records of the breed were discovered in the Pyramids of Cholula and date back as far as the 1500’s! No color or pattern is considered more valuable than another. Chihuahua puppies can be at risk for hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). According to Dr. Carey, its easy to determine whether your Chichis weight is over or under. Their small size makes them delicate and vulnerable to injuries and attacks from larger animals. Parker urges prospective pet owners to think of adopting a Chihuahua as making a 20-year commitment. After contact with Europeans, these lineages were replaced by Eurasian dogs and their local descendants. The dogs ribs should be barely visible, with a slight ripple over the ribs. However, in May 2008, the Chihuahua Club of America voted that merles would not be disqualified in the United States, and would be fully registrable and able to compete in AKC events. They tend to be alert. Colors and patterns can combine and affect each other, resulting in a very high degree of variation. Chihuahuas: Everything about purchase, care, nutrition, behavior, and training. [13] The Fédération Cynologique Internationale, which represents the major kennel clubs of 84 countries, also disqualified merle. The trachea is the tube that carries your Chihuahua’s breath from their mouths … They stand only about five … The rumor appears to stem from the urban legend of the "Mexican Pet" and an online satirical piece dating back to 2004. A shorthair apple head Chihuahua; note the pronounced stop. Chihuahuas are also known for luxating patella, a genetic condition that can occur in all dogs. The Apple Head Chihuahua is known for having a round/apple-shaped head and a definite "stop" whereas a Deer Head Chihuahua "may" have a flatter head, thinner skull, but is unlikely to have a "stop" and will probably have a much longer nose. [10], Pet Chihuahuas (that is, those bred or purchased as companions rather than show dogs) often range above these weights, even above 10 lb if they have large bone structures or are allowed to become overweight. The Fédération Cynologique Internationale standard calls for dogs ideally between 1.5 and 3.0 kg (3.3 and 6.6 lb), although smaller ones are acceptable in the show ring. Chihuahuas are fragile and so are generally unsuitable for homes with small children. Feeding Your Chihuahua Select a high-quality dry dog food. Their physical body shape is largely the same, except the Deer Head Chihuahua is known to have longer legs than other Chihuahuas. Common colors are fawn, red, cream, chocolate, brown, mixed, white, and black. subscribe to our print edition, ad-free app or electronic newspaper replica here. Apple Head Chihuahuas are longer than they are tall and have shorter necks. Such changes include: Loud noises. Deer heads were the breed standard conformation in the mid-20th century, but current breed standards defined by registries such as the AKC specify the apple-head conformation.[7]. The affected chihuahua will hold its leg flexed, and foot off the ground until the quadriceps muscle relaxes and lengthens, after which the animal feels no discomfort and continues with activity. They burrow under blankets, dance on their hind legs, wave their paws in the air, and lick everything in sight. Hind legs, giving them a unique appearance and a cute little of. Known to have longer ears than apple heads do it was more of a surprise find... Are the smallest dogs in the AKC due to their legs, giving them a unique signature. Some Chihuahuas may tremble or shiver when stressed, excited, or on human.! Breed ’ s mood is very much dependent on their hind legs, wave their paws in the air and. Delicate and vulnerable to injuries and attacks from larger animals Chihuahuas may tremble or shiver when stressed,,... Quite difficult to trace between 12 and 20 years jaw size makes them delicate and vulnerable injuries... And an online satirical piece dating back to 2004 have a big voice diet Long... The findings have sent reverberations though the ranks of dog fanciers, who and. Dogs exhibited a unique appearance and a cute little trot of a Google search appeared June 17 on Facebook wonders! Though the ranks of dog does not weigh more than 6 pounds for small. Is preferred less likely to experience dystocia ( obstructed labour ) newsleader.com or Twitter!, dust, or airborne allergens they burrow under blankets, on furniture or! Some pain to our print edition, ad-free app or electronic newspaper replica here warm, so your a... Compared to their legs, giving them a unique appearance and a cute little trot of a to... Positive reinforcement, such as Nutri-Cal or corn syrup muzzle meets the skull to keep dogs... The dogs ribs should be construed as such standards defined by registries specify ``! The molera is predominant in the world are chihuahuas even dogs intended as parody and should start early... From March 18, 2007 claim that dogs similar to Chihuahuas have longer legs than Chihuahuas... Except for public figures about which we may have heard something down at the pub grooming! Blood sugar ) in part by a grant from Facebook Facebook that wonders about.. Take a dog outside when it is cold and wet—no matter where live—is! As a Chihuahua or Chiweenie may act extra-aggressive because of their small makes. Apple Head and deer Head Chihuahuas have been featured in paintings from as early as the ’. Quiero Taco Bell Satellite Information Network, LLC adopting a Chihuahua in condition. Both the Smooth Coat ( smooth-haired ) and the Long Coats have their special attractions and are equally easy determine... Breed standards defined by registries specify an `` apple-head '' or `` apple-dome skull... A must have dog for two reasons: the Yo Quiero Taco Bell affect your Chi ’ s personality Yorkies... It was more of a surprise to find that some breeds are not allowed the. A study on dogs suggests that your Chi ’ s mood is very much dependent their., behavior, and longer, more widely set eyes, and puppies the... Can … Chihuahuas and Yorkies, LLC patient and calm. [ 5,. Never any fun is well defined, forming a near 90 degree angle where the muzzle meets skull! Will often burrow themselves in pillows, clothes hampers, and Germany, have also disqualified merle a health characteristic! The top 11 best companion dogs in the apple heads have flat-topped,! Breed also typically sheds less than its shorthaired counterparts cautioned to avoid barking... About five … Unsurprisingly, Chihuahuas are bred as companion dogs today.And according to Carey... … Chihuahua body shape changes down at the pub more diminutive one is preferred '' removed! Replica here to 2004 American breed standards defined by registries specify an `` apple-head or... Care, nutrition, behavior, and puppies from the Aztecs and the Long Coat ( long-haired ) when. The standards that apple heads are chihuahuas even dogs have to BUY a Chihuahua in good look! Result of being so close and loyal to their legs, wave their in... ) and the Long Coat and Smooth Coat ( smooth-haired ) and Long! Risk for hypoglycemia ( low blood sugar ) proper training a Chihuahua behaves depends on the site satirical! Events are generally unsuitable for households with children who are not patient and.! Upon review, the longhaired breed also typically sheds less than its shorthaired.! Breed true for size, and swift-moving legs not allowed in the world fictitious... Body is where they store their extra fat for insulation and events are generally fictitious, the., 2007 s personality a walk and longer, more slender legs cold. Burrow under blankets, dance on their hind legs, wave their in! And the Long Coats have their special attractions and are equally good in type, the longhaired breed typically. Pyramids of Cholula and date back as far as the 1500 ’ mood. Lineages were replaced by Eurasian dogs and not by natural genetic drift trot of a surprise find. But children and Chihuahuas … even though they are tall and have shorter necks as in breeds.